Wallpaper is a kind of material used to protect and decorate the inside walls of homes, offices, cafes, government buildings, museums, post offices, as well as other buildings; it is one facet of interior decoration. It is almost always purchased in rolls which is put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers comes plain as “lining paper” (in order that it could be painted or employed to help cover uneven surfaces and minor wall defects thus giving a better surface), textured (for example Anaglypta), using a regular repeating pattern design, or, significantly less commonly today, by using a single non-repeating large design carried over a collection of sheets. The tiniest rectangle that could be tiled to make the entire pattern is recognized as the pattern repeat.
Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, printable wallpaper, silk screen-printing, rotary printing, and digital printing. Wallpaper is created in long rolls, which are hung vertically over a wall. Patterned wallpapers are designed in order that the pattern “repeats”, and so pieces cut from the same roll could be hung next to each other to be able to continue the pattern without one being easy to understand where the join between two pieces occurs. In the matter of large complex patterns of images this is certainly normally achieved by starting the 2nd piece halfway into the size of the repeat, to ensure that when the pattern heading down the roll repeats after 24 inches, the following piece sideways is cut from the roll to start 12 inches across the pattern from the first. The number of times the pattern repeats horizontally across a roll does not matter for this reason. One particular pattern might be issued in many different colorways.
The world’s most expensive wallpaper, ‘Les Guerres D’Independence’ (The Wars of Independence), was priced at £24,896.50 ($44,091, or €36,350) for a pair of 32 panels. The wallpaper was created by Zuber in France and is quite popular in the United States.
The primary historical techniques are: hand-painting, woodblock printing (overall the most prevalent), stencilling, and various types of machine-printing. The first three all date back to before 1700.
Wallpaper, using the printmaking technique of woodcut, gained popularity in Renaissance Europe within the emerging gentry. The social elite continued to hold large tapestries about the walls of their homes, as they had in the center Ages. These tapestries added color for the room as well as providing an insulating layer between the stone walls as well as the room, thus retaining heat in the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive and so simply the very rich could afford them. Less well-off individuals the elite, struggling to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, turned to wallpaper to enhance their rooms.
Early wallpaper featured scenes comparable to those depicted on tapestries, and enormous sheets of the paper were sometimes hung loose on the walls, inside the kind of tapestries, and sometimes pasted as today. Prints were fairly often pasted to walls, as opposed to being framed and hung, as well as the largest sizes of prints, which arrived several sheets, were probably mainly supposed to have been pasted to walls. Some important artists made such pieces – notably Albrecht Dürer, who labored on both large picture prints plus ornament prints – meant for wall-hanging. The biggest picture print was The Triumphal Arch commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and finished in 1515. This measured a colossal 3.57 by 2.95 metres, made up of 192 sheets, and was printed within a first edition of 700 copies, supposed to have been hung in palaces and, in particular, town halls, after hand-coloring.
Hardly any examples of the earliest repeating pattern wallpapers survive, but there are numerous old master prints, often in engraving of repeating or repeatable decorative patterns. These are called ornament prints and were intended as models for wallpaper makers, among other uses.
England and France were leaders in European wallpaper manufacturing. Among the earliest known samples is just one seen on a wall from England which is printed on the back of a London proclamation of 1509. It became very popular in England following Henry VIII’s excommunication from the Catholic Church – English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII’s split using the Catholic Church had ended in a fall in trade with Europe. Without the tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike considered wallpaper.
Through the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, the creation of Mural Base, viewed as a frivolous item through the Puritan government, was halted. Using the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again – Cromwell’s regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic products which have been banned underneath the Puritan state.
In 1712, during the reign of Queen Anne, a wallpaper tax was introduced that was not abolished until 1836. With the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe together with selling around the middle-class British market. However this trade was seriously disrupted in 1755 by the Seven Years’ War and later on the Napoleonic Wars, and also by huge amount of duty on imports to France.
In 1748 the British Ambassador to Paris decorated his salon with blue flock wallpaper, which in turn became very fashionable there. Within the 1760s the French manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon hired designers operating in silk and tapestry to create probably the most subtle and splendid wallpaper ever produced. His sky blue wallpaper with fleurs-de-lys was adopted in 1783 in the first balloons by the Montgolfier brothers. The landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Pillement discovered in 1763 a technique to use fast colours.
Hand-blocked wallpapers like these use hand-carved blocks and also by the 18th century designs include panoramic views of antique architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral subjects, along with repeating patterns of stylized flowers, people and animals.
In 1785 Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf had invented the very first machine for printing coloured tints on sheets of wallpaper. In 1799 Louis-Nicolas Robert patented a device to produce continuous lengths of paper, the forerunner of your Fourdrinier machine. This power to produce continuous lengths of wallpaper now offered the prospect of novel designs and nice tints being widely displayed in drawing rooms across Europe.
Wallpaper manufacturers active in England inside the 18th century included John Baptist Jackson and John Sherringham. On the list of firms established in 18th-century America: J. F. Bumstead & Co. (Boston), William Poyntell (Philadelphia), John Rugar (New York).
High-quality wallpaper made in China became available from the later section of the 17th century; it was entirely handpainted and extremely expensive. It may still be found in rooms in palaces and grand houses including Nymphenburg Palace, Lazienki Palace, Chatsworth House, Temple Newsam, Broughton Castle, Lissan House, and Erddig. It was actually made-up to 1.2 metres wide. English, French and German manufacturers imitated it, usually starting with a printed outline which was coloured in by hand, an approach sometimes also found in later Chinese papers.
Right at the end from the 18th century the style for scenic wallpaper revived in both England and France, ultimately causing some enormous panoramas, like the 1804 20 strip wide panorama, Sauvages de la Mer du Pacifique (Savages from the Pacific), created by the artist Jean-Gabriel Charvet for that French manufacturer Joseph Dufour et Cie showing the Voyages of Captain Cook. This famous so called “papier peint” wallpaper continues to be in situ in Ham House, Peabody Massachusetts. It had been the largest panoramic wallpaper from the time, and marked the burgeoning of your French industry in panoramic wallpapers. Dufour realized almost immediate success from the sale of the papers and enjoyed an active trade with America. The Neoclassical style currently in favour worked well in houses of the Federal period with Charvet’s elegant designs. Like other 18th-century wallpapers, the panorama was designed to get hung above a dado.
‘Sauvages de la Mer Pacifique’, panels 1-10 of woodblock printed wallpaper created by Jean-Gabriel Charvet and manufactured by Joseph Dufour
Beside Joseph Dufour et Cie (1797 – c. 1830) other French manufacturers of panoramic scenic and trompe l’œil wallpapers, Zuber et Cie (1797-present) and Arthur et Robert exported their product across Europe and North America. Zuber et Cie’s c. 1834 design Views of Canada And America hangs in the Diplomatic Reception Room of your White House.
While Joseph Dufour et Cie was de-activate in the 1830s, Zuber et Cie still exists and, with Cole & Son of England along with the Atelier d’Offard (1999-present) equally located in France, is amongst the last Western producers of woodblock printed wallpapers. For its production Zuber uses woodblocks out of an archive of more than 100,000 cut from the 19th century that are classified as a “Historical Monument”. It includes panoramic sceneries including “Vue de l’Amérique Nord”, “Eldorado Hindoustan” or “Isola Bella” and in addition wallpapers, friezes and ceilings as well as hand-printed furnishing fabrics.
On the list of firms begun in France within the 1800s: Desfossé & Karth. In the states: John Bellrose, Blanchard & Curry, Howell Brothers, Longstreth & Sons, Isaac Pugh in Philadelphia; Bigelow, Hayden & Co. in Massachusetts; Christy & Constant, A. Harwood, R. Prince in New York City.
In the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, contributing to the gradual decline from the wallpaper industry in great britan. However, the conclusion of your war saw a massive demand in Europe for British goods which had been inaccessible during the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The development of steam-powered printing presses in great britan in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its price so making it affordable to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a huge boom in popularity within the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very efficient way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. It became almost the standard in many regions of middle-class homes, but remained relatively little utilized in public buildings and offices, with patterns generally being avoided such locations. Within the latter half of the century Lincrusta and Anaglypta, not strictly wallpapers, became popular competitors, especially below a dado rail. They may be painted and washed, and were a great deal tougher, though also more pricey.
Wallpaper manufacturing firms established in England from the 19th century included Jeffrey & Co.; Shand Kydd Ltd.; Lightbown, Aspinall & Co.; John Line & Sons; Potter & Co.; Arthur Sanderson & Sons; Townshend & Parker. Designers included Owen Jones, William Morris, and Charles Voysey. Especially, many 19th century designs by Morris & Co and other Arts and Crafts designers stay in production.
From the early 20th century, wallpaper had established itself as the most favored household items throughout the Western world. Manufacturers in the USA included Sears; designers included Andy Warhol. Wallpaper went inside and out of fashion since about 1930, however the overall trend is for wallpaper-type patterned wallcoverings to shed ground to plain painted walls.
During the early twenty-first century, wallpaper evolved into a lighting feature, improving the mood along with the ambience through lights and crystals. Meystyle, a London-based company, invented LED incorporated wallpaper. The growth of digital printing allows designers to destroy the mould and combine new technology and art to take wallpaper completely to another level of popularity.
Historical samples of wallpaper are preserved by cultural institutions for example the Deutsches Tapetenmuseum (Kassel) in Germany; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Paris) and Musée du Papier Peint (Rixheim) in France; the Victoria & Albert in britain; the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, Historic New England, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Usa National Park Service, and Winterthur in the united states. Original designs by William Morris and other English wallpaper companies are held by Walker Greenbank.
In terms of methods of creation, wallpaper types include painted wallpaper, hand-printed blockwood wallpaper, hand-printed stencil wallpaper, machine-printed wallpaper, and flock wallpaper.
Modern wallcoverings are diverse, and exactly what is referred to as wallpaper may will no longer sometimes be made out of paper. Two of the more common factory trimmed sizes of wallpaper are termed as “American” and “European” rolled goods. American rolled goods are 27 inches by 27 feet (8.2 m) in length. European rolled goods are 21.5 inches wide by 33 feet (10 m) long. Approx. 60 square feet (5.6 m2). Most wallpaper borders are offered by linear foot along with a variety of widths therefore square footage is just not applicable. However some might need trimming.
The most frequent wall covering for residential use and usually probably the most economical is prepasted vinyl coated paper, commonly called “strippable” that may be misleading. Cloth backed vinyl is rather common and sturdy. Lighter vinyls are simpler to handle and hang. Paper backed vinyls are generally higher priced, considerably more tough to hang, and may be found in wider untrimmed widths. Foil wallpaper generally has paper backing and will (exceptionally) be around 36 inches wide, and stay very difficult to handle and hang. Textile wallpapers include silks, linens, grass cloths, strings, rattan, and 18dexspky impressed leaves. You can find acoustical wall carpets to lessen sound. Customized wallcoverings are offered at high costs and many often times have minimum roll orders.
Solid vinyl with a cloth backing is regarded as the common commercial wallcovering and arises from the factory as untrimmed at 54 inches approximately, to become overlapped and double cut from the installer. This same type may be pre-trimmed in the factory to 27 inches approximately.
Furthermore, wallpaper for printing comes in the form of borders, typically mounted horizontally, and commonly near ceiling degree of homes. Borders may be found in varying widths and patterns.